Anatomy and cytopathology (ACP) is the official term in France, where it is colloquially called "anapath" Pathology is the international name. This is a medical specialty that studies the morphological changes of organs during disease processes and thus has a prominent place in the diagnosis of cancers.
Human anatomical cytopathology uses fundamental knowledge of anatomy, histology and cytology normal to recognize morphological abnormalities associated with the disease.
It is based on macroscopic techniques, microscopy, chemistry, immunochemistry, cytogenetics and molecular biology.
This medical specialty is to make a diagnosis. Obtaining a histological dagnostic before the treatment of cancer is essential. Initial examinations should lead to specify the local and remote prognosis of the disease, and collect potential markers for predicting therapeutic response.

standard coloration : HES

Safety coloring that allows to highlight the nuclei, cytoplasm and collagen fibers by their capture selectively dyes to get an idea of ​​the general topography of tissue.
Completion time, about three minutes to the rapid HES, seven minutes for direct HES, 35 minutes with dewaxing for HES Standard. Tri-color method that act successively three dyes.
Aqueous hematoxylin (nuclear), an aqueous solution of eosin (cytoplasmic) and an alcoholic solution of saffron (collagen). Nuclear staining is progressive. After hematoxylin (Meyer), a rapid differentiation into a solution of saturated lithium carbonate (lithinée water) or merely with running water is carried out in order to blue nuclei and facilitate fixation of the dyes.
The cytoplasmic staining is regressive. After eosin excess is rinsed with running water, a differentiation is made in successive baths of ethanol to absolute ethanol. The ethanol passages prepare the action of the rudder that spreads throughout the fabric through an absorption phenomenon. At the end of staining, the slides should be immersed in a bath of sovant (toluene, xylene) for mounting. In any case they must not dry in the open air, since the dyes may precipitate in the fabric.

Dr Marc Putterman SELARL, Anatomo-pathologiste, praticien consultant AP-HP-NECKER, CHNO des Quinze-Vingts
28 ter, rue Guersant - 75017 PARIS
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